BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION, Today, the EPA announced it is proposing to require 15.21 billion gallons of ethanol to be blended into the nation’s gasoline in 2014, down from 16.55 billion gallons in 2013, marking the first time the agency has lowered the target from the prior year. While not surprising to those who have been following this oft-contentious debate, America’s perception of ethanol has changed dramatically over the years.

This is a perfect opportunity for us to launch our new content series, ATOMOXETINE australia, uk, us, usa,  “The Energy Explainer,” which takes a fun and unbiased look at misunderstood or controversial aspects of energy policy. My ATOMOXETINE experience, First, we explore the nation’s changing relationship with ethanol, and how something that started out as a no-strings-attached infatuation morphed into a marriage that has clearly reached the seven-year itch.

It all began in the 1980s when Americans broke up with leaded gasoline, ATOMOXETINE over the counter. Lead was a functional oxygenate that improved the octane performance of engines and prevented engine “knocking.”  American motorists rebounded with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in the early 1990s, a chemical compound that performed many of the same duties as lead, but had the added benefit of reducing emissions of carbon monoxide, BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION. Usage peaked in 1997, when MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269, Real brand ATOMOXETINE online, 000 barrels per day by 1997. Tragically, the relationship began to sour when some unsavory details emerged about MTBE and groundwater—specifically, that MTBE is not biodegradable, ATOMOXETINE trusted pharmacy reviews, and even at low concentrations can render massive volumes of water unpotable. At the time, ATOMOXETINE no rx, these sordid details weren’t enough for a full breakup, but the nation was surely questioning this additive’s “value add.”

It was around this time that America’s refiners and gas stations began to start seeing more of ethanol. At first, ethanol was almost too good to be true, ATOMOXETINE photos. BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION, In addition to all the performance benefits, ethanol was a simple alcohol—not nearly as environmentally harmful as MTBE or lead—and was a renewable, domestic fuel produced by America’s very own corn country. After MTBE fell out of favor, the country’s refiners began blending ethanol into gasoline at volumes of 2-3 percent. Order ATOMOXETINE from mexican pharmacy, Thus began the non-committal, but mutually beneficial relationship with corn-ethanol.

In a time of intense national concern about energy-related CO2 emissions and spending on foreign oil, America wanted more out of its relationship with ethanol.  Burned by its failed infatuations with lead and MTBE, herbal ATOMOXETINE, it was ready to settle down with the gasoline additive of its dreams. In 2007, Online buy ATOMOXETINE without a prescription, a few years into casually dating corn ethanol, President George W. Bush signed the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which mandated the Renewable Fuel Standard, requiring increasing volumes of ethanol (up to ten percent) to be blended into the nation’s gasoline, BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION.

Of course, there were some lingering questions about this marriage, ATOMOXETINE use. Ethanol, for all its advantages, What is ATOMOXETINE, wasn’t perfect. Many were concerned about its higher price and low fuel efficiency compared to gasoline, the high energy (natural gas) inputs required for its production, and its impact on the environment.   But questions of, ATOMOXETINE used for, “are we taking this too fast?” were swept under the rug in the exuberance of the happy marriage. After all, ATOMOXETINE brand name, although the nation loved corn ethanol, it believed that this conventional biofuel would evolve into a deeper relationship with advanced biofuels and additional feedstocks. BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION, The deal was that America wouldn’t only support ethanol with subsidies and mandates, but would even invest in research and development of new technologies to produce ethanol from waste matter or drop-in biofuels from algae and cellulosic feedstocks.

For a while, things went well, ordering ATOMOXETINE online. Corn country was particularly pleased by the arrangement, and the ethanol industry raced forward as it sought to meet the increasing demand requirements. ATOMOXETINE from canadian pharmacy, But more recently, especially this year, the relationship has soured. By now, online buying ATOMOXETINE hcl, according to the Renewable Fuels Standards, the plan was that the nation’s investment into ethanol’s “higher education” would start to see returns—through either production of ethanol from waste feedstocks, What is ATOMOXETINE, or production of drop-in gasoline replacements. Instead, corn ethanol (and some biodiesel) are still the only commercial biofuels, while pilot and demonstration plants of advanced biofuels are not quite producing large volumes at cost-effective levels, BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION.

Furthermore, the United States has hit a wall in its romance with ethanol—quite literally, a blend wall, ATOMOXETINE schedule. Now, basically all gasoline is a 10 percent ethanol blend, ATOMOXETINE interactions, and while vehicles produced after 2000 are approved by the Government to use E15 (a 15 percent blend) this fuel is not suitable for other uses (such as in boat or lawnmower engines) and gasoline stations have proved resistant to installing the necessary infrastructure to sell this fuel for which there may be no appetite. Meanwhile, the market for Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs, which refiners are required to purchase in order to prove they are using ethanol) has exploded, order ATOMOXETINE online overnight delivery no prescription, as excessive ethanol supply meets with limited refiner capabilities.   Consequently, a lobbying war has arisen. ATOMOXETINE without prescription, The petroleum and refining industries are fundamentally against a continued increase in blending ethanol due to escalating costs. BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION, Environmentalists are increasingly skeptical of ethanol’s benefits, as it has drawbacks for land and fertilizer use. Use of corn to produce ethanol drives up food prices, and diverts volumes that would typically be used in food and animal feed—upsetting consumers and the meat industry.

Now, ATOMOXETINE overnight, in wake of the EPA’s new ruling, the time has come to closely examine the pros and cons of our relationship with corn ethanol. Order ATOMOXETINE from mexican pharmacy, Pro: Reduced Oil Consumption

The 2013 ethanol mandate was 13.8 billion gallons, which equates roughly to 0.9 million barrels per day of reduced petroleum consumption.

By extension, all domestically-produced biofuels entail the same benefits as domestic petroleum consumption—they positively impact the trade deficit be reducing spending on petroleum imports, where can i buy ATOMOXETINE online, while spurring job creation and economic growth domestically.

Pro: Emissions Benefits

In terms of carbon emissions, estimates about the improvements of ethanol over gasoline (when taking into account the energy consumption of the agricultural and production process) vary, but most estimates agree that ethanol provides some benefit in net carbon emissions compared to gasoline, BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION. When the RFS was first implemented, ATOMOXETINE dosage, modeling on carbon emissions included certain assumptions—namely, that efficiency of the production process would improve, as would yields per acre of corn. While the production process has seen some efficiency improvements, after ATOMOXETINE, corn yields have not meaningfully changed, and when unpredictable doubts strike, ATOMOXETINE forum, prices rise accordingly.

However, ethanol contains 35 percent oxygen, and thus burns more cleanly and completely than gasoline, ATOMOXETINE duration. There are some improvements in carbon monoxide and particulate levels.

Pro: Renewable BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION, You can always grow more corn.

Con: Land Use

Recent reports by the Associated Press have drawn attention to increasing conversion of conservation land into corn fields due to high corn prices driven by ethanol use. ATOMOXETINE coupon, Conversions of this nature have environmental drawbacks, including reduced habitat for prairie ecosystems, and increased water and fertilizer use to support corn growth on ill-suited land. However, others argue that this impact is not new, and is driven by escalating food costs and agricultural subsidies.

Con: Food Prices

Last year, corn prices reached a record high of $7 per bushel, more than double their prices before the Renewable Fuels Standard became law. Since corn is the basis of basically all animal feed for the meat industry, this has significant repercussions throughout the food industry, BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION. Importantly, the corn used for animal feed and as an ethanol feedstock differs in nature from the corn consumed by people. However, the ethanol mandate has linked corn and oil prices, which is not good for…

Con: Price Volatility

One of the promises of ethanol’s early days was that it would lower gasoline prices. In years like 2012 when severe drought blighted the corn crop and prices spiked, the opposite was seen to be true. The volatile RIN market is no help, either. BUY ATOMOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION, Since ethanol and gasoline are substitutes, ethanol does not provide true relief from oil market volatility, and entails its own price fluctuations.

What does the ethanol mandate mean for energy security?

In short… not much. There are some benefits, many of which also come from domestic production of other forms of energy. Obviously, as a renewable and domestic fuel, there are advantages of ethanol to oil. However, ethanol is not a true alternative to petroleum (as electric and natural gas vehicles are), but rather a substitute, and as such its energy security benefits are limited. In the context of the fuel’s challenges to the environment and food markets, lawmakers and regulatory agencies have much to consider. In light of today’s EPA decision, it seems clear that this process has begun, and the honeymoon is over.