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Steven Mufson has a good piece in today's WaPo (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/02/03/AR2010020303804.html?sub=AR ZELNORM FOR SALE, ) that nicely summarizes the policy debate on mandates for increased biofuels use in the transportation sector. In a subtle reminder about the basis for much of our biofuels policy, Mufson begins his piece thusly:
"The nation's farmers got a big boost Wednesday when the Obama administration issued new biofuels guidelines that could open the way for large increases in the production of corn-based ethanol. Buying ZELNORM online over the counter,
"The Environmental Protection Agency said new data showed that, even after taking into account increased fertilizer and land use, real brand ZELNORM online, ZELNORM canada, mexico, india, corn-based ethanol can yield significant climate benefits by displacing conventional gasoline or diesel fuel."
We also need to give credit where credit is due here, and that is to the U.S, comprar en línea ZELNORM, comprar ZELNORM baratos. ZELNORM from canadian pharmacy, Congress, where farm state interests scored a big win in 2005 -- and again in 2007 -- with passage of energy legislation that added a federal production mandate to the long-standing (and generous) tax subsidies for ethanol production. In 2007, ZELNORM cost, Buy ZELNORM without prescription, Congress both increased the ethanol mandate and added a requirement for production of advanced biofuels, including cellulosic ethanol. Yesterday's EPA action is implementing that congressional policy, ZELNORM used for, ZELNORM dangers, and it disappointed some critics who wanted EPA to rein in the congressional mandates on environmental grounds. Back to Mufson:
"The new renewable-fuel standard issued by the EPA drew criticism from some environmentalists as well as oil industry representatives, who accused the Obama administration of catering to farm interests, where can i find ZELNORM online. Order ZELNORM from mexican pharmacy, In an earlier draft of the standard, the administration had said that corn-based ethanol output should be limited because its direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions exceeded renewable fuel standards."
This raises an important point. If you care mostly about energy security (and American agribusiness), ZELNORM results, Buy no prescription ZELNORM online, you would love it if we could "grow our way out of" dependence on foreign oil. The talking points are appealing: American farmers growing a renewable resource that keeps American energy dollars at home. Energy independence and family farms! Amber waves of grain beating the terrorists.
Unfortunately, doses ZELNORM work, ZELNORM trusted pharmacy reviews, if you also care about greenhouse gas emissions -- and maybe even whether the world's poor need food more than we should need fuel -- the truth behind the talking points is a little more complex.
It's pretty easy to understand why the vilified "oil industry representatives" would be decrying the mandates no their fuel composition. Why do "some environmentalists" have problems? Mufson summarizes it well when he talks about direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. The issue is life-cycle emissions, and for decades there's been a debate about how much better, if at all, conventional corn ethanol scores on that metric compared to gasoline. Burning either in an internal combustion engine releases carbon dioxide (a key greenhouse gas). But growing corn removes CO2 from the air -- a form of sequestration -- until it is released/recycled back into the atmosphere at the end of your tailpipe. Sounds pretty good, right, ZELNORM FOR SALE.
Gasoline tailpipe emissions, low dose ZELNORM, ZELNORM duration, on the other hand, result from previously sequestered CO2 in underground crude oil being released into the atmosphere. Unless you consider renewability in geologic terms, taking ZELNORM, ZELNORM samples, that's an addition to the greenhouse gas stock in the atmosphere, not a wash, ZELNORM price, coupon, What is ZELNORM, as ethanol appears to be.
But of course ethanol isn't a wash, order ZELNORM no prescription, ZELNORM reviews, either, when you factor in the fertilizer and energy used to grow the corn, ZELNORM schedule, Australia, uk, us, usa, as well any land use change that might have happened in converting previously carbon-storing fallow ground into agricultural production (churning dirt releases CO2 -- so watch your toddlers, people!), ordering ZELNORM online. Cheap ZELNORM, This analysis has been summarized in a new acronym that swept Washington -- and international climate scientists -- a couple years back: indirect land use changes, or ILUC (think, where to buy ZELNORM, ZELNORM blogs, "I, Luke, ZELNORM without prescription, am your father" -- not the precise quote, but still . . . .). One of the leading scientists in the field is quoted by Mufson in his piece this morning:
"The numbers [that EPA relied upon] are inconsistent with the great bulk of analyses by others, which consistently find that emissions from indirect land-use change for crops grown on productive land cancel out the bulk or all of the greenhouse gas reductions, but I will have to study the results," said Tim Searchinger, a research scholar at Princeton University and an author of articles critical of corn-based ethanol."
Ok, so if corn ethanol isn't the silver bullet, what about cellulosic ethanol? Congress recognized the potential for even cleaner cellulosic ethanol, which uses ag waste products to create fuel, by mandating a separate and increasing standard for advanced biofuels. Both the Bush and Obama Administration have committed millions of tax dollars to proving out that technology at commercial scale. And it's developing, but slowly. Back to Mufson:
"For this year, Congress had set a target of 100 million gallons of ethanol made from cellulosic raw materials such as switchgrass, corn cobs or wood chips. But the EPA said Wednesday that cellulosic production will amount to 6.5 million gallons, equal to a few pilot projects."
Even at 100 million gallons, advanced biofuels will make only a small dent in our dependence. Last year, in the worst economy in generations, we burned through 137.8 billion gallons of gas. Just a reminder that there is not silver bullet we can rely on to end our dependence on foreign oil -- and precious little silver buckshot.
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